Here is a small list of basic nautical terms and their meanings.
Bow: the front or nose of a boat.
Stern: the back or rear of the boat.
Port: the left hand side of the boat, if you are in the boat facing forwards.
Starboard: the right hand side of the boat, if you are in the boat facing forwards.
Transom: this is the back/rear wall of the boat. If using an outboard you will clamp the outboard to this part.
Painter: this is the rope that goes from the nose of the boat to the shore, so it doesnt flat away.
Rowlocks: the metal loops that the oars sit in when you are rowing.
Beam: this is the width of the boat at its widest point.
Gunwale: this refers to the top edge of the boat.
Pram dinghy: this hull shape has a flat front, and is designed for stability and capacity in a range of conditions, these are often used as yacht tenders, and will handle much better than a punt..
Punt: A flat bottomed, flat fronted boat, usually square (although mine have a curve to the gunwale), these make great estate boats they are often sculled or punted from a standing position.
Skiff: originally a term for a fast narrow rowing boat, my pond skiffs have a much wider beam, making them perfect as pond boats, moat boats, lake boats, etc
Coracle: these tiny little round boats have curved hulls, and are notoriously unstable, they required considerable skill to manouvre and use.
Canoes vs Kayaks: canoes are generally larger than kayaks, a kayak will have an enclosed deck, whereas a canoe will usually be open, a canoe will traditionally be kneeled in while paddling (although my wooden canoes are generally sat in), a kayak will always be sat it, kayaks are designed for manouverability, Canoes can be fast, and will hold a line well on the water.